This is a little note for anyone trying to get some debugging out of the puppetmaster when deploying with Foreman.
The trick, much as it is, is that Foreman is running puppet via Apache; so if you're trying to start a puppet master daemon outside that it won't be able to bind to port 8140. You thus want to edit the config file Apache is using to launch puppet /etc/puppet/rack/config.ru. It's probably pretty obvious what's happening when you look in there; simply add
ARGV << "--debug"
and you will start to get debugging output. One issue is that this goes to syslog (/var/log/messages) by default and is a lot of output; so much so that it might get throttled. Although you can certainly reconfigure your syslog daemon to split out puppet logs, an easier way is to just skip syslog while you're debugging. Don't be fooled by config options; simply add
ARGV << "--logdest" << "/var/log/puppet/puppet-master.debug"
to the same file to get the logs going to a separate file. Don't forget to restart Apache so the changes stick.